.Net Interview questions and Answers

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-What is CTS, CLS?

 Common Type System (CTS) describes how types are declared, used and managed in the runtime and facilitates cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code execution.

The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integration in such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. These rules and the specification are documented in the ECMA proposed standard document.

What is JIT (just in time)? How it works?
Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must be converted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code, which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler.
Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls.
The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation. The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed.
As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe, which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.

What is strong name?
A name that consists of an assembly’s identity—its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)—strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly.

What is portable executable (PE)?
The file format defining the structure that all executable files (EXE) and Dynamic Link Libraries (DLL) must use to allow them to be loaded and executed by Windows. PE is derived from the Microsoft Common Object File Format (COFF). The EXE and DLL files created using the .NET Framework obey the PE/COFF formats and also add additional header and data sections to the files that are only used by the CLR.

What is Code Access Security (CAS)?

CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk.


What are object pooling and connection pooling and difference? Where do we set the Min and Max Pool size for connection pooling?
Object pooling is a COM+ service that enables you to reduce the overhead of creating each object from scratch. When an object is activated, it is pulled from the pool. When the object is deactivated, it is placed back into the pool to await the next request. You can configure object pooling by applying the ObjectPoolingAttribute attribute to a class that derives from the System.EnterpriseServices.ServicedComponent class.
Object pooling lets you control the number of connections you use, as opposed to connection pooling, where you control the maximum number reached.
Following are important differences between object pooling and connection pooling:


When using connection pooling, creation is on the same thread, so if there is nothing in the pool, a connection is created on your behalf. With object pooling, the pool might decide to create a new object. However, if you have already reached your maximum, it instead gives you the next available object. This is crucial behavior when it takes a long time to create an object, but you do not use it for very long.

Enforcement of minimums and maximums. This is not done in connection pooling. The maximum value in object pooling is very important when trying to scale your application. You might need to multiplex thousands of requests to just a few objects. (TPC/C benchmarks rely on this.)

COM+ object pooling is identical to what is used in .NET Framework managed SQL Client connection pooling. For example, creation is on a different thread and minimums and maximums are enforced.


What is serialization in .NET? What are the ways to control serialization?
Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization / Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).Serialization can be defined as the process of storing the state of an object to a storage medium. During this process, the public and private fields of the object and the name of the class, including the assembly containing the class, are converted to a stream of bytes, which is then written to a data stream. When the object is subsequently deserialized, an exact clone of the original object is created.

Binary serialization preserves type fidelity, which is useful for preserving the state of an object between different invocations of an application. For example, you can share an object between different applications by serializing it to the clipboard. You can serialize an object to a stream, disk, memory, over the network, and so forth. Remoting uses serialization to pass objects “by value” from one computer or application domain to another.

XML serialization serializes only public properties and fields and does not preserve type fidelity. This is useful when you want to provide or consume data without restricting the application that uses the data. Because XML is an open standard, it is an attractive choice for sharing data across the Web. SOAP is an open standard, which makes it an attractive choice.

There are two separate mechanisms provided by the .NET class library

XmlSerializer and SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter. Microsoft uses XmlSerializer for Web Services, and uses SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter for remoting. Both are available for use in your own code.

What is exception handling?
When an exception occurs, the system searches for the nearest catch clause that can handle the exception, as determined by the run-time type of the exception. First, the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement, and the associated catch clauses of the try statement are considered in order. If that fails, the method that called the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement that encloses the point of the call to the current method. This search continues until a catch clause is found that can handle the current exception, by naming an exception class that is of the same class, or a base class, of the run-time type of the exception being thrown. A catch clause that doesn’t name an exception class can handle any exception.
Once a matching catch clause is found, the system prepares to transfer control to the first statement of the catch clause. Before execution of the catch clause begins, the system first executes, in order, any finally clauses that were associated with try statements more nested that than the one that caught the exception.
Exceptions that occur during destructor execution are worth special mention. If an exception occurs during destructor execution, and that exception is not caught, then the execution of that destructor is terminated and the destructor of the base class (if any) is called. If there is no base class (as in the case of the object type) or if there is no base class destructor, then the exception is discarded.

What is the difference between CONST and READONLY?
Both are meant for constant values. A const field can only be initialized at the declaration of the field. A readonly field can be initialized either at the declaration or in a constructor. Therefore, readonly fields can have different values depending on the constructor used.

What is the difference between ref & out parameters?
An argument passed to a ref parameter must first be initialized. Compare this to an out parameter, whose argument does not have to be explicitly initialized before being passed to an out parameter.


What is the difference between Array and Array list?
As elements are added to an Array List, the capacity is automatically increased as required through reallocation. The capacity can be decreased by calling TrimToSize or by setting the Capacity property explicitly.

What is Jagged Arrays?
A jagged array is an array whose elements are arrays. The elements of a jagged array can be of different dimensions and sizes. A jagged array is sometimes called an “array-of-arrays.”

What are indexers?
Indexers are similar to properties, except that the get and set accessors of indexers take parameters, while property accessors do not.

What is CCW (COM Callable Wrapper)

A proxy object generated by the common language runtime so that existing COM applications can use managed classes, including .NET Framework classes, transparently.

How will you register com+ services?
The .NET Framework SDK provides the .NET Framework Services Installation Tool (Regsvcs.exe – a command-line tool) to manually register an assembly containing serviced components. You can also access these registration features programmatically with the System.EnterpriseServicesRegistrationHelper class by creating an instance of class RegistrationHelper and using the method InstallAssembly

What are the OOPS concepts?
1) Encapsulation: It is the mechanism that binds together code and data in manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. In short it isolates a particular code and data from all other codes and data. A well-defined interface controls the access to that particular code and data.
2) Inheritance: It is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. This supports the hierarchical classification. Without the use of hierarchies, each object would need to define all its characteristics explicitly. However, by use of inheritance, an object need only define those qualities that make it unique within its class. It can inherit its general attributes from its parent. A new sub-class inherits all of the attributes of all of its ancestors.
3) Polymorphism: It is a feature that allows one interface to be used for general class of actions. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In general polymorphism means “one interface, multiple methods”, This means that it is possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities. This helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. It is the compiler’s job to select the specific action (that is, method) as it applies to each situation.

In which Scenario you will go for Interface or Abstract Class?

Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes. Even though class inheritance allows your classes to inherit implementation from a base class, it also forces you to make most of your design decisions when the class is first published.
Abstract classes are useful when creating components because they allow you specify an invariant level of functionality in some methods, but leave the implementation of other methods until a specific implementation of that class is needed. They also version well, because if additional functionality is needed in derived classes, it can be added to the base class without breaking code.

Interfaces vs. Abstract Classes

Feature Interface Abstract class

Multiple inheritance

A class may implement several interfaces. A class may extend only one abstract class.

Default implementation

An interface cannot provide any code at all, much less default code. An abstract class can provide complete code, default code, and/or just stubs that have to be overridden.


Static final constants only, can use them without qualification in classes that implement the interface. On the other paw, these unqualified names pollute the namespace. You can use them and it is not obvious where they are coming from since the qualification is optional. Both instance and static constants are possible. Both static and instance intialiser code are also possible to compute the constants.

Third party convenience

An interface implementation may be added to any existing third party class. A third party class must be rewritten to extend only from the abstract class.

is-a vs -able or can-do

Interfaces are often used to describe the peripheral abilities of a class, not its central identity, e.g. an Automobile class might implement the Recyclable interface, which could apply to many otherwise totally unrelated objects. An abstract class defines the core identity of its descendants. If you defined a Dog abstract class then Damamation descendants are Dogs, they are not merely dogable. Implemented interfaces enumerate the general things a class can do, not the things a class is.


You can write a new replacement module for an interface that contains not one stick of code in common with the existing implementations. When you implement the interface, you start from scratch without any default implementation. You have to obtain your tools from other classes; nothing comes with the interface other than a few constants. This gives you freedom to implement a radically different internal design. You must use the abstract class as-is for the code base, with all its attendant baggage, good or bad. The abstract class author has imposed structure on you. Depending on the cleverness of the author of the abstract class, this may be good or bad. Another issue that’s important is what I call “heterogeneous vs. homogeneous.” If implementors/subclasses are homogeneous, tend towards an abstract base class. If they are heterogeneous, use an interface. (Now all I have to do is come up with a good definition of hetero/homogeneous in this context.) If the various objects are all of-a-kind, and share a common state and behavior, then tend towards a common base class. If all they share is a set of method signatures, then tend towards an interface.


If all the various implementations share is the method signatures, then an interface works best. If the various implementations are all of a kind and share a common status and behavior, usually an abstract class works best.


If your client code talks only in terms of an interface, you can easily change the concrete implementation behind it, using a factory method. Just like an interface, if your client code talks only in terms of an abstract class, you can easily change the concrete implementation behind it, using a factory method.


Slow, requires extra indirection to find the corresponding method in the actual class. Modern JVMs are discovering ways to reduce this speed penalty. Fast


The constant declarations in an interface are all presumed public static final, so you may leave that part out. You can’t call any methods to compute the initial values of your constants. You need not declare individual methods of an interface abstract. They are all presumed so. You can put shared code into an abstract class, where you cannot into an interface. If interfaces want to share code, you will have to write other bubblegum to arrange that. You may use methods to compute the initial values of your constants and variables, both instance and static. You must declare all the individual methods of an abstract class abstract.

Adding functionality

If you add a new method to an interface, you must track down all implementations of that interface in the universe and provide them with a concrete implementation of that method. If you add a new method to an abstract class, you have the option of providing a default implementation of it. Then all existing code will continue to work without change.

see the code

interface ICommon
int getCommon();
interface ICommonImplements1:ICommon
interface ICommonImplements2:ICommon
public class a:ICommonImplements1,ICommonImplements2

How to implement getCommon method in class a? Are you seeing any problem in the implementation?

public class a:ICommonImplements1,ICommonImplements2
public int getCommon()
return 1;
interface IWeather
void display();
public class A:IWeather
public void display()
public class B:A
public class C:B,IWeather
public void display()

Write one code example for compile time binding and one for run time binding? What is early/late binding?
An object is early bound when it is assigned to a variable declared to be of a specific object type. Early bound objects allow the compiler to allocate memory and perform other optimizations before an application executes.
‘ Create a variable to hold a new object.
Dim FS As FileStream
‘ Assign a new object to the variable.
FS = New FileStream(“C:\tmp.txt”, FileMode.Open)
By contrast, an object is late bound when it is assigned to a variable declared to be of type Object. Objects of this type can hold references to any object, but lack many of the advantages of early-bound objects.
Dim xlApp As Object
xlApp = CreateObject(“Excel.Application”)

What are the access-specifiers available in c#?
 Private, Protected, Public, Internal, Protected Internal

(Constructor / Destructor)

Difference between type constructor and instance constructor? What is static constructor, when it will be fired? And what is its use?
(Class constructor method is also known as type constructor or type initializer)
Instance constructor is executed when a new instance of type is created and the class constructor is executed after the type is loaded and before any one of the type members is accessed. (It will get executed only 1st time, when we call any static methods/fields in the same class.) Class constructors are used for static field initialization. Only one class constructor per type is permitted, and it cannot use the vararg (variable argument) calling convention.
A static constructor is used to initialize a class. It is called automatically to initialize the class before the first instance is created or any static members are referenced.

What is Private Constructor? and it’s use? Can you create instance of a class which has Private Constructor?
A: When a class declares only private instance constructors, it is not possible for classes outside the program to derive from the class or to directly create instances of it. (Except Nested classes)
Make a constructor private if:
– You want it to be available only to the class itself. For example, you might have a special constructor used only in the implementation of your class’ Clone method.
– You do not want instances of your component to be created. For example, you may have a class containing nothing but Shared utility functions, and no instance data. Creating instances of the class would waste memory.

I have 3 overloaded constructors in my class. In order to avoid making instance of the class do I need to make all constructors to private?

Overloaded constructor will call default constructor internally?

What are virtual destructors?

Destructor and finalize
Generally in C++ the destructor is called when objects gets destroyed. And one can explicitly call the destructors in C++. And also the objects are destroyed in reverse order that they are created in. So in C++ you have control over the destructors.
In C# you can never call them, the reason is one cannot destroy an object. So who has the control over the destructor (in C#)? it’s the .Net frameworks Garbage Collector (GC). GC destroys the objects only when necessary. Some situations of necessity are memory is exhausted or user explicitly calls System.GC.Collect() method.
Points to remember:
1. Destructors are invoked automatically, and cannot be invoked explicitly.
2. Destructors cannot be overloaded. Thus, a class can have, at most, one destructor.
3. Destructors are not inherited. Thus, a class has no destructors other than the one, which may be declared in it.
4. Destructors cannot be used with structs. They are only used with classes.
5. An instance becomes eligible for destruction when it is no longer possible for any code to use the instance.
6. Execution of the destructor for the instance may occur at any time after the instance becomes eligible for destruction.
7. When an instance is destructed, the destructors in its inheritance chain are called, in order, from most derived to least derived.

What is the difference between Finalize and Dispose (Garbage collection)
Class instances often encapsulate control over resources that are not managed by the runtime, such as window handles (HWND), database connections, and so on. Therefore, you should provide both an explicit and an implicit way to free those resources. Provide implicit control by implementing the protected Finalize Method on an object (destructor syntax in C# and the Managed Extensions for C++). The garbage collector calls this method at some point after there are no longer any valid references to the object.
In some cases, you might want to provide programmers using an object with the ability to explicitly release these external resources before the garbage collector frees the object. If an external resource is scarce or expensive, better performance can be achieved if the programmer explicitly releases resources when they are no longer being used. To provide explicit control, implement the Dispose method provided by the IDisposable Interface. The consumer of the object should call this method when it is done using the object. Dispose can be called even if other references to the object are alive.
Note that even when you provide explicit control by way of Dispose, you should provide implicit cleanup using the Finalize method. Finalize provides a backup to prevent resources from permanently leaking if the programmer fails to call Dispose.



Advantage of ADO.Net?

ADO.NET Does Not Depend On Continuously Live Connections

Database Interactions Are Performed Using Data Commands

Data Can Be Cached in Datasets

Datasets Are Independent of Data Sources

Data Is Persisted as XML

Schemas Define Data Structures

Difference between Data Reader and Data Adapter / Dataset and Data Adapter?
You can use the ADO.NET Data Reader to retrieve a read-only, forward-only stream of data from a database. Using the Data Reader can increase application performance and reduce system overhead because only one row at a time is ever in memory.
After creating an instance of the Command object, you create a Data Reader by calling Command.ExecuteReader to retrieve rows from a data source, as shown in the following example.
SqlDataReader myReader = myCommand.ExecuteReader();
You use the Read method of the DataReader object to obtain a row from the results of the query.
while (myReader.Read())
Console.WriteLine(“\t{0}\t{1}”, myReader.GetInt32(0), myReader.GetString(1));

The DataSet is a memory-resident representation of data that provides a consistent relational programming model regardless of the data source. It can be used with multiple and differing data sources, used with XML data, or used to manage data local to the application. The DataSet represents a complete set of data including related tables, constraints, and relationships among the tables. The methods and objects in a DataSet are consistent with those in the relational database model. The DataSet can also persist and reload its contents as XML and its schema as XML Schema definition language (XSD) schema.

The DataAdapter serves as a bridge between a DataSet and a data source for retrieving and saving data. The DataAdapter provides this bridge by mapping Fill, which changes the data in the DataSet to match the data in the data source, and Update, which changes the data in the data source to match the data in the DataSet. If you are connecting to a Microsoft SQL Server database, you can increase overall performance by using the SqlDataAdapter along with its associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection. For other OLE DB-supported databases, use the DataAdapter with its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.

Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?

Differences between dataset.clone and dataset.copy?
Clone – Copies the structure of the DataSet, including all DataTable schemas, relations, and constraints. Does not copy any data.
Copy – Copies both the structure and data for this DataSet.

How ASP and ASP.NET page works? Explain about asp.net page life cycle?

Order of events in an asp.net page? Control Execution Lifecycle?


What a control needs to do

Method or event to override

Initialize Initialize settings needed during the lifetime of the incoming Web request. Init event (OnInit method)
Load view state At the end of this phase, the ViewState property of a control is automatically populated as described in Maintaining State in a Control. A control can override the default implementation of the LoadViewState method to customize state restoration. LoadViewState method
Process postback data Process incoming form data and update properties accordingly. LoadPostData method (if IPostBackDataHandler is implemented)
Load Perform actions common to all requests, such as setting up a database query. At this point, server controls in the tree are created and initialized, the state is restored, and form controls reflect client-side data. Load event

(OnLoad method)

Send postback change notifications Raise change events in response to state changes between the current and previous postbacks. RaisePostDataChangedEvent method (if IPostBackDataHandler is implemented)
Handle postback events Handle the client-side event that caused the postback and raise appropriate events on the server. RaisePostBackEvent method(if IPostBackEventHandler is implemented)
Prerender Perform any updates before the output is rendered. Any changes made to the state of the control in the prerender phase can be saved, while changes made in the rendering phase are lost. PreRender event
(OnPreRender method)
Save state The ViewState property of a control is automatically persisted to a string object after this stage. This string object is sent to the client and back as a hidden variable. For improving efficiency, a control can override the SaveViewState method to modify the ViewState property. SaveViewState method
Render Generate output to be rendered to the client. Render method
Dispose Perform any final cleanup before the control is torn down. References to expensive resources such as database connections must be released in this phase. Dispose method
Unload Perform any final cleanup before the control is torn down. Control authors generally perform cleanup in Dispose and do not handle this event. UnLoad event (On UnLoad method)

Difference between ASP Session and ASP.NET Session?
ASP.net session supports cookie less session & it can span across multiple servers.

What is cookie less session? How it works?
By default, ASP.NET will store the session state in the same process that processes the request, just as ASP does. If cookies are not available, a session can be tracked by adding a session identifier to the URL. This can be enabled by setting the following:
<sessionState cookieless=”true” />

What is State Management in .Net and how many ways are there to maintain a state in .Net? What is view state?
Web pages are recreated each time the page is posted to the server. In traditional Web programming, this would ordinarily mean that all information associated with the page and the controls on the page would be lost with each round trip.
To overcome this inherent limitation of traditional Web programming, the ASP.NET page framework includes various options to help you preserve changes — that is, for managing state. The page framework includes a facility called view state that automatically preserves property values of the page and all the controls on it between round trips.
However, you will probably also have application-specific values that you want to preserve. To do so, you can use one of the state management options.
Client-Based State Management Options:
View State
Hidden Form Fields
Query Strings
Server-Based State Management Options
Application State
Session State
Database Support

What are the disadvantages of view state / what are the benefits?
Automatic view-state management is a feature of server controls that enables them to repopulate their property values on a round trip (without you having to write any code). This feature does impact performance; however, since a server control’s view state is passed to and from the server in a hidden form field. You should be aware of when view state helps you and when it hinders your page’s performance.

What is the use of web.config? Difference between machine.config and Web.config?
ASP.NET configuration files are XML-based text files–each named web.config–that can appear in any directory on an ASP.NET
Web application server. Each web.config file applies configuration settings to the directory it is located in and to all
virtual child directories beneath it. Settings in child directories can optionally override or modify settings specified in
parent directories. The root configuration file–WinNT\Microsoft.NET\Framework\<version>\config\machine.config–provides
default configuration settings for the entire machine. ASP.NET configures IIS to prevent direct browser access to web.config
files to ensure that their values cannot become public (attempts to access them will cause ASP.NET to return 403: Access
At run time ASP.NET uses these web.config configuration files to hierarchically compute a unique collection of settings for
each incoming URL target request (these settings are calculated only once and then cached across subsequent requests; ASP.NET
automatically watches for file changes and will invalidate the cache if any of the configuration files change).

What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?

In a Webservice, need to display 10 rows from a table. So DataReader or DataSet is best choice?
A: WebService will support only DataSet.

How to generate WebService proxy? What is SOAP, WSDL, UDDI and the concept behind Web Services? What are various components of WSDL? What is the use of WSDL.exe utility?
SOAP is an XML-based messaging framework specifically designed for exchanging formatted data across the Internet, for example using request and reply messages or sending entire documents. SOAP is simple, easy to use, and completely neutral with respect to operating system, programming language, or distributed computing platform.
After SOAP became available as a mechanism for exchanging XML messages among enterprises (or among disparate applications within the same enterprise), a better way was needed to describe the messages and how they are exchanged.

The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a particular form of an XML Schema, developed by Microsoft and IBM for the purpose of defining the XML message, operation, and protocol mapping of a web service accessed using SOAP or other XML protocol. WSDL defines web services in terms of “endpoints” that operate on XML messages. The WSDL syntax allows both the messages and the operations on the messages to be defined abstractly, so they can be mapped to multiple physical implementations. The current WSDL spec describes how to map messages and operations to SOAP 1.1, HTTP GET/POST, and MIME. WSDL creates web service definitions by mapping a group of endpoints into a logical sequence of operations on XML messages. The same XML message can be mapped to multiple operations (or services) and bound to one or more communications protocols (using “ports”).

The Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) framework defines a data model (in XML) and SOAP APIs for registration and searches on business information, including the web services a business exposes to the Internet. UDDI is an independent consortium of vendors, founded by Microsoft, IBM, and Ariba, for the purpose of developing an Internet standard for web service description registration and discovery. Microsoft, IBM, and Ariba also are hosting the initial deployment of a UDDI service, which is conceptually patterned after DNS (the Internet service that translates URLs into TCP addresses). UDDI uses a private agreement profile of SOAP (i.e. UDDI doesn’t use the SOAP serialization format because it’s not well suited to passing complete XML documents (it’s aimed at RPC style interactions). The main idea is that businesses use the SOAP APIs to register themselves with UDDI, and other businesses search UDDI when they want to discover a trading partner, for example someone from whom they wish to procure sheet metal, bolts, or transistors. The information in UDDI is categorized according to industry type and geographical location, allowing UDDI consumers to search through lists of potentially matching businesses to find the specific one they want to contact. Once a specific business is chosen, another call to UDDI is made to obtain the specific contact information for that business. The contact information includes a pointer to the target business’s WSDL or other XML schema file describing the web service that the target business publishes